Film formation mechanisms in mixed-dimensional 2D/3D halide perovskite films revealed by in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering

Citation:

Hoffman, J. M. ; Hadar, I. ; Li, X. ; Ke, W. ; Vasileiadou, E. S. ; Strzalka, J. ; Chen, L. X. ; Kanatzidis, M. G. Film formation mechanisms in mixed-dimensional 2D/3D halide perovskite films revealed by in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. Chem 2022, 8 1067-1082.

Abstract:

Summary Mixed-dimensional 2D/3D hybrid halide perovskites retain the stability of 2D perovskites (formula (A′)2(A)n−1PbnI3n+1) and long diffusion lengths of the 3D materials (AMX3), thereby affording devices with extended stability as well as state-of-the art efficiencies approaching those of the 3D materials. These films are made by spin-coating precursor solutions with an arbitrarily large average layer thickness n (⟨n⟩ > 7) to give films with both 2D and 3D phases. Although the 2D and 3D perovskite film formation mechanisms have been studied, little is understood about composite 2D/3D film formation. We used in-situ grazing-incidence wide-angle scattering with synchrotron radiation to characterize the films fabricated from precursor solutions with stoichiometries of (BA)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1 (⟨n⟩ = 3, 4, 5, 7, 12, 50, and ∞ (MAPbI3)). Four different mechanisms are seen depending on the stoichiometry in the precursor solution. Kinetic analysis shows faster and earlier growth of the solvate with increasing ⟨n⟩.


Film formation mechanisms

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Last updated on 06/02/2022